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14

POWER CONVERSION

BATTERY2

BATTERY1

BATTERY3

ACSHORE

POWER

ACSHORE

POWER

BATTERY2

BATTERY1

BATTERY3

Charge Coordination

A boat’s batteries typically spend less than 2% of their time being

charged by the alternator. For the remaining 98% of the time they

are being maintained by the AC battery charger. During this time, it is

important that the proper charging stage of Bulk, Absorption, PreFloat,

or Float be applied to each battery.

UNDERWAY

When engine is

running and

alternator is

charging batteries,

ACRs combine

batteries, providing

charge to each

battery from the

engine.

AT THE DOCK

When P12 Battery

Charger is operating,

communication with

ACRs isolates

batteries so the

proper charge is

applied to

each battery.

P12 Four Stage Battery Charging

1. Bulk charges batteries to 75-80% of full charge.

2. Absorption slowly completes remaining charge.

3. PreFloat™ moves each battery individually from Absorption to

PreFloat, based on the need of each battery. This prevents

overcharging and damage to the batteries. Up to 0.5V difference

between Absorption and PreFloat voltages can be achieved.

4. Float maintains battery charge.

Battery Equalization Mode:

User selected battery equalizing provides

advanced battery conditioning, revitalizing wet acid batteries.

Other Battery Chargers

Conventional battery chargers move all batteries from Absorption

to the Float stage simultaneously with no ability to adjust for

individual battery requirements.

Forced Absorption:

A period when batteries are potentially over charged.

14.5V

14.0V

T I M E

Absorption

Absorption

Absorption

PreFloat

Bulk

13.5V

Battery 1

Battery 2

Battery 3

PreFloat

Float

Example of Flooded LeadAcid Battery

14.5V

T I M E

Absorption

Bulk

13.5V

Battery 1

Battery 2

Battery 3

Float

Example of Flooded LeadAcid Battery

Absorption

Absorption

Forced Absorption

Forced Absorption

ELECTRICAL PRESSURE

AIR PRESSURE

BULK

Increasing air

pressure

Steady

electrical

pressure

High air volume

Steady amperage volume

Steady air

pressure

Increasing

electrical

pressure

Decreasing air volume

High amperage volume

Low

electrical

pressure

Small volume

(to offset leakage)

Small amperage volume

(to offset self discharge)

ABSORPTION

FLOAT

Battery Charging

While not a perfect analogy, it is useful to think of voltage as

pressure. Just as applying too much pressure to a balloon for too

much time can ruin a balloon, applying too much electrical pressure

(voltage) ruins batteries.

Batteries are charged by applying a higher voltage

(electrical pressure) than a battery normally has. That forces a

chemical reaction in the battery that stores energy in chemical form

that is later turned into electrical energy when power is required.

For this process to occur effectively, charging voltage must

be applied for the appropriate time and must be adjusted

up (for cold batteries) or down (for warm batteries).

A charger’s failure to properly manage these three variables -

VOLTAGE, TIME, and TEMPERATURE, results in batteries that are

chronically undercharged or overcharged. This delivers less energy

for the boater’s safety and comfort and results

in expensive premature failure of batteries.